Rishta brigade

Published in Spider (Dawn Group of Newspapers) – March 2014

mehndiBy Ayesha Hoda

“Muslim, Sunni, Syed, Pakistani, Pashtun, moderate, hailing from upper middle class, living in Dubai in a nuclear family, never married before, no children athletic, no physical disabilities, 6 feet 1 inch in height with a very fair complexion and non-vegetarian (halal) diet.”

This is one of the many descriptions of the eligible men on the countless Pakistani matrimonial web portals such as Pakistanimatrimony.com and Mehndi.com. If you have set your relationship status as “Single” on Facebook, you will see many ads and sponsored links offering to pair you up with the most eligible Pakistani Muslim man or woman.

Much like an eager and pestering rishta aunty, these websites typically ask you a thousand questions about yourself, including religion, social status, physical appearance, geographic location, cultural background, hobbies and interests. They give third parties, such as parents, siblings, relatives or friends the option to make a profile on someone else’s behalf, which is uploaded on a searchable database on the website.

After registering and updating your details, you can either wait for suitors (or their parents) to visit your profile or search for the “ideal” partner by entering the desired characteristics, in tools such as advanced search or auto matchmaker, and voila, you have at least a thousand plus matches available. These websites further promise that you will get better matches if you update a good profile picture. Arranged marriage just got easier with modern technology – no dependency on the not-so well wishing neighbours, relatives and friends to recommend someone – or so one would assume.
Sadly, the reality is quite far from this. While matrimonial sites are sometimes regarded as an Indian e-business success story, one rarely hears of any marriage in Pakistan that has been initiated through one of the local matrimonial websites.
Salman Siddiqui, a Pakistan PR professional residing in Singapore, is cynical about these sites because of the numerous stories he has heard in his social circle. “I think matrimonial websites are for either perverted men who sign up for the sole purpose to exploit others for their own indulgence or ‘kitchen-bound aunties’, in desperate hope to find a complete stranger for their inexperienced children. Marrying someone off the Internet is quite deplorable. Sure, one can meet another for dating and to see how it goes from there, but if your prime objective is to wed the person sitting on the other side of the screen, then my friend, you need psychotherapy.”

Too harsh and judgmental, some would think. But Salman’s opinion is based on a friend’s experience, who was “a victim of such heinous motives… it happens in Pakistan and even in India on daily a basis,” he says.

Harris Siddiqui, whose work revolves around web development and social media, reveals that many owners of these websites create them for the sole purpose of earning money through premium memberships, advertising and affiliate programs. For this they need to build a community for six months and therefore create many fake profiles of women and advertise “success stories”, luring people facing social pressure to tie the knot, especially women (as the proverbial clock is supposedly ticking!). Harris thinks these sites in Pakistan are rarely authentic and the matrimonial sections in newspapers are more effective.

Revenue generation does seem to be the main focus of these sites, some of which were also offering discount deals on Valentine’s Day. The commercialization of marriage seems to have no bounds!

Across borders
Matrimonial sites seem to have more success in India or for South Asians living abroad. While researching for this article, I came across a few real success stories. Zehra Farhan, a freelance writer, shares, “Matrimonial websites may not be of much use here in Pakistan but are useful for desis living abroad. One of my cousins in Canada got married through www.shaadi.com. Her mother searched for suitors on the website and found her husband, a Muslim of Indian descent from Singapore who was living and working in the US. So their experience has been great. You just need to be serious and look for other serious people. Most of the time, you can judge the seriousness on the other side, especially when parents are involved and operating the account. My relatives did not go for a Pakistani website, however, as most users there seemed to have registered for stalking rather than serious matchmaking.”

An Indian doctor, Amir Husain, shares how his family found his young sister’s second husband through shaadi.com after her divorce. He says there are many such Indian websites, with some exclusively for people who are divorced or widowed. Users can choose the level of confidentiality in account settings and find someone without the concerns and suggestions of all and sundry.

“Of course we were extra cautious while narrowing down the possible matches the system generated,” Amir says. “After selection you start communicating. It’s a time consuming process and ultimately takes a leap of faith, but then aren’t all marriages the same?”

Clearly South Asians living abroad are getting ideas based on the success of websites like shaadi.com. A new website called Hipster Shaadi – http://www.hipstershaadi.com – created by a group of American Muslims, seems to be a step in this direction. It has been defined by The Guardian as “the matchmaking site for hip young Muslims”. It gives people the option of making a unique profile, based on their individuality and preferences, rather than focusing on social status and visual appearance.

If you live abroad and can fathom the concept of online marriage-broking, these websites may be the route to go for a non-traditional arranged marriage, which might actually be less embarrassing and nerve-racking than the typical drawing room setting option.

The Grand Finale

Published in SouthAsia (November 2010) – Original Link

By Ayesha Hoda

“And the award goes to….”

A moment of silence, pregnant with expectations of victory or gloom for a favorite star or film – it gives you goosebumps. You hold your breath. And then the moment passes, with the silence broken by a thundering applause as the winner’s name is announced.

Any film buff can easily identify with these magical moments. With so many film award shows to watch today and their countless reruns on television, these moments have lost some of their thrill. But not all of it and definitely not in shows like Filmfare, also known as the “Indian Oscars”.

The Filmfare Awards were introduced in 1953 by Filmfare magazine, beginning with just one category and five awards. Over the years they have grown in scope to cover many more aspects of filmmaking and become a much-awaited annual event, glittering with stars. Looking at their success, more award shows have been designed along similar lines, not only in India, but also in other South Asian nations, like Lux Style Awards (LSA) in Pakistan, Nepali Film Awards in Nepal, National Film Awards in Bangladesh and so on.

The awards industry in the region, primarily the Indian industry, is growing in terms of popularity as well as business. Each show has multiple sponsors and impressive advertising support from a large number of brands. And why not? Most of them are star-studded events that involve many months of planning; offering gigantic backdrops, technical wizardry, fireworks, many song-and-dance numbers, light banter by A-list celebrity hosts and post-award parties.

Film awards honor those who push cinematic boundaries, appeal to the audiences’ aesthetics and do well at the box office. However, they have a much wider impact due to the film world’s close ties with fashion, music and other industries.

Today, an award show is not merely about the showcasing of a country’s cinematic vision. A Hollywood-style red carpet bonanza is quite in vogue at these ceremonies, with stars and their spouses adorning designer labels. In addition, costumes have to be supplied to the performers. Stylists and make-up artists need to be present. Those involved with the designing and construction of huge sets, setting up of the floodlights, the sound systems, security etc. are all employed by the booming awards industry.

Quite predictably, Bollywood shows are the ones most widely watched, not only within South Asia or Asia but across the world. Starting in January or February, they generally continue up till June, being broadcast around the world for the entertainment of the South Asian diasporas and now even western audiences.

For tapping international markets, some shows are being held abroad, benefitting the organizers, the film industry as well as the host country. For instance, the Indian International Film Awards (IIFA) was first held in 2008 in Thailand, which significantly added to the country’s popularity amongst Indian travelers. Similarly, Film Awards Bangla – a language based awards ceremony that seeks to promote Bengali cinema through an international platform – took the same route this year. Both India and Bangladesh are emerging markets for Thailand – a popular choice for their cinematic industries due to its scenic beauty and skilled personnel, as a film location for both pre- and post-production work and a destination for holding award ceremonies.

Recent news reports also suggest that the next hot destination for shows will be Singapore, with Zee Cine Awards scheduled to be held at Marina Bay Sands in January 2011. Pakistan’s Lux Style Awards have also been held outside the country twice, once in UAE (2005) and once in Malaysia (2007).

Beyond doubt, the South Asian region has much to offer the world in terms of different film styles, genres, languages and socio-cultural representations. With subtitles, several movies available online and international entries in film festivals around the world, people are getting a chance to watch independent and mainstream movies from Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and even Afghanistan.

However, with the film industry in shambles in Pakistan, the chances of growth of the awards industry here seem to be minimal, at least in the near future. Even LSA is said to be in need of raising its glamour quotient and may not be held this year due to the flood crisis in Pakistan.

Despite the obvious economic and artistic benefits of these annual award ceremonies, they are not always held without controversy. With Bollywood’s links to Mumbai Underworld lurking in the shadows, the funding of these projects comes under speculation. These links are sometimes denied by filmmakers or lost amongst the glitterati. On the other hand, some film stars are openly seen in the company of their mafia connections. The mafia is here to stay, a fact more evident with the introduction of a new genre of filmmaking some years back, Mumbai Noir, dealing with realistic depictions of underworld dons.

There are also other controversies surrounding award shows. Stars, film critics and audiences often accuse them of bias towards commercial success rather than merit, except perhaps some government sponsored awards. In India, stars like Aamir Khan refrain from attending the award ceremonies because of the way they are conducted. To counter such criticism, some Indian shows have introduced a critics’ awards category that often honors the works of parallel cinema. But this sometimes leads to further criticism as the ever-widening range of categories is seen as “designed to please everyone”.

However, the award shows represent an enormous opportunity which advertisers and allied industries cannot ignore. The cult like following of film celebrities is not expected to go away any time soon. Even the relatively smaller film industries in other parts of India or in the rest of South Asia do have some faces that are loved by the masses. Moreover, the award shows offer several hours of entertainment – the chance of seeing the enigmatic persona of stars outside the silver screen and dancing to popular beats. Target Rating Points (TRPs) are high as ever and so are profits. Notwithstanding some criticism, further growth of this industry will mainly benefit South Asian cinema: all those working for it and all those bedazzled by it.

Caffeinated

Published in DEEP.

It was during my visits to Mumbai that I was first exposed to the coffee culture at some wonderful coffeehouses like Barista, Café Coffee Day and Café Mocha. The ambiance was relaxing, non-intrusive and conducive to creativity.

It was there that I discovered that the coffee culture does not merely signify drinking coffee but actually represents a certain lifestyle. The coffee shop or café is a place for social and business interaction; for long conversations and brainstorming sessions; for peace and quiet with your own thoughts.

If one looks up the history of this café culture, it dates back to 16th century Turkey. But now the culture is visible in many countries around the world where caffeine is an important part of the life of morning commuters (often shown in Hollywood flicks based in New York City). It has been carefully and consciously developed by coffee makers and marketers.

Coffeehouses are also considered the abodes of artists and intellectuals. A few years ago, a writer confided that she became a writer only because she had seen so many people in London writing on their laptops while at Starbucks. I guess inspiration comes from the most unexpected sources.

Coming to Pakistan, the country is full of tea drinkers and thus devoid of a coffee culture. Slowly, we are moving towards it although there haven’t been many success stories of coffee bars (except a few like Indulge and Espresso). But several traditional restaurants and cafés are now offering different varieties on their menus: from mocha to cappuccino to latte and so much more. They also come up with unique names and designs or coffee art. Steamed milk is poured to generate a design or pattern on the surface like a rosetta or a heart shape.

With time, people are developing a taste for drinking coffee and also looking for places where they can unwind and work without disturbance, paving the way for a café culture. With wireless internet available at several such places, it is becoming trendy to sit there for long hours and work on one’s laptop. Students go and discuss group projects, professionals go for networking, friends for chit-chat and media people for interviews.

The coffee culture, like coffee itself, can be very diverse. There is much scope to further develop this caffeinated form of socializing locally. It will give a much-needed space to artists, writers, students, socialites, extroverts and even introverts, and of course to those who simply love coffee!

The lost art of storytelling

Published in SouthAsia (June 2009)

Mahmood Farooqui and Danish Husain continue to mesmerize audiences by reviving an old art form, writes Ayesha Hoda

Two men dressed in white are seated on a stage. One of them speaks poetically in Urdu with a hint of Persian, making smooth gestures with his hands. The other looks on and then speaks, adding drama and dynamism to the performance.

The scene belongs to a dastangoi performance. The lost art of storytelling, dastangoi was popular as early as the ninth century, in medieval Iran (Persia). It was appreciated by the elite as well as the common man.

The tales (dastan) were originally composed in Persian but different versions gradually spread in all languages of the Islamic world, such as in Indonesia, Azerbaijan, East Bengal, Constantinople and so on. These tales were later translated in Urdu in the Subcontinent and performed in Emperor Akbar’s court, in Peshawar’s Qissa-Khvani Bazaar, on the steps of Jama Masjid and in the streets of Delhi. The most famous of these performances were related to Dastan-e-Amir Hamza (tales of Prophet Muhammad’s uncle).

Then the art was suddenly lost with the death of Mir Baqar Ali, the last known dastango (storyteller), in 1928.

It was rediscovered only four years back, by a Rhodes Scholar, actor and writer, Mahmood Farooqui. He came across the tales of Amir Hamza, written in 46 volumes, with each volume comprising a thousand pages or so. These tales revolved around Hamza’s triumphs against infidels, sorcerers and others who laid claim to divinity.

The epic belonged to the Islamic cultures of the Middle East and beyond. It depicted Amir Hamza’s courage and was a unique collection of his adventures. The stories were as powerful as the Arabian Nights and led to Farooqui’s discovery of the art of dastangoi, in which these stories were performed in a narrative form by the storyteller.

Farooqui was fascinated and compelled to revive the art. In this endeavour, he was joined by a corporate banker and also a poet and an actor, Danish Husain. However, neither knew how a dastan was actually performed. There were no references and they had to experiment and improvise.

They were helped and guided by S. R. Faruqi, Urdu’s pre-eminent critic and writer, and Mahmood Farooqui’s uncle; the only person who owned the entire set of 46 volumes.

The result was spectacular, leading to immense popularity and critical acclaim, first in New Delhi and then elsewhere, including Pakistan.

“Their performances are unbelievably good,” opines Fatma Alam, a Delhiite; one of many who have been enchanted by the magical performances of Farooqui and Husain. The tales are mainly picked from Tilism Hoshruba (enchantment that steals away the senses) which constitutes seven of the forty-six volumes.

Farooqui lends his poetic and lyrical style to the performance while Husain is more theatrical. In order to keep the audience engaged, they do not look directly at one another but rather in different directions while speaking.

The two have also explored other themes, such as partition, in some of their shows. They are now set to perform at the Muslim Arts and Voices Festival in New York with the famous Indian actor, Naseeruddin Shah, in the second week of June.

This will be followed by a performance at the Motley Festival in Mumbai in July and then at National School of Drama’s orientation program in early August.

The two also plan also to conduct a workshop with the second and third year students of the National School of Drama next year. The dastangoi duo is working on publishing the stories they perform, in simple language and making audio CDs of their performances so that more people can easily join them.

Their flawless acting and beautiful recitation continues to enthral even non-Urdu speaking audiences. Farooqui and Husain have successfully created a new platform for performing artists through the revival of a forgotten tradition.

Related links:
Dastangoi (Blog)

Article on Dastangoi blog

Artists of Dastangoi

The Marble Castle

Published in Books & Authors (Daily Dawn) on May 13, 2007
Original Link
The Marble Castle By Sitara Ali
Ferozsons Pvt Ltd
60, Shahrah-i-Quaid-i-Azam, Lahore.
Tel: 042 630 1196-8
support@ferozsons.com.pk
www.ferozsons.com.pk
ISBN 969 0 02012 9422pp.
Rs295

Review:
THIS first novel by Sitara Ali is set in the 1940s right before the partition of the Indian subcontinent. It narrates the drastic changes in the socio-political setup as witnessed by six families belonging to different cities/religions, in those times. The book predictably ends with the partition but the highlight is the reader’s sojourn to the pre-Partition era, a glimpse of the way things were then.

Though the tale revolves around three cities — Karachi, Bombay and Delhi — Sitara concentrates more on one particular neighbourhood in Karachi. The childhood love story of a Muslim girl Shenaz and a Hindu boy Ramesh is the focal point of The Marble Castle.

Amongst the neighbourhood families of these characters, Sitara shows harmony, trust and feelings of tolerance, portraying that only politics and circumstances separated these people who, otherwise, did not make religion an issue of identity or a basis for power struggle. She has tried to be politically neutral while writing about Hindu or Muslim opinion/nationalism, Gandhi or Jinnah. She is not judgmental and leaves it to her readers to draw their own conclusions, except on the point that the British colonial rule was unjust.

What is, however, lacking in the book is spirit and a unique perspective (that is, the author’s viewpoint). Often it seems as if one is reading excerpts from a history course book, with some very general statements and a conventional outlook. Moreover, one also feels that the author is telling the story like an outsider rather than being fully informed, affected by or involved in the plot.

However, the scenes depicted in the daily lives of the Muslim families reflect their way of life in a realistic manner. Historical details have not been restricted to the South Asian region but important events of World War II have also been included rather aptly. Although the book requires proofreading at certain points, Sitara has a good command over the English language and has paid close attention to descriptive detail.

“The tinges of amethyst and scarlet had fanned out over the turquoise sky and vivid layers of crimson were banded round the horizon where the sun was about to set. The birds and other little creatures had already resumed their instinctive patterns of survival whilst the flower beds and trees, having absorbed enough nourishment, were looking invigorated. Shenaz too was in her element and when she stepped out in the open, the pictorial view added zest to her romantic enchantment,” she writes.

Unlike other books based on Partition, Sitara avoids melodrama and too much emphasis on the tragedy or more appropriately, tragedies underlying the ruthless divide. However, at certain instances the reactions of the characters seem to need more maturity.

The need for end notes and a glossary of terms is felt all along the perusal of this book. Some Urdu proverbs, abusive words, etc have been directly translated (wife’s brother?) and for a foreign reader, it will be problematic to understand the context in which they have been used. — Ayesha Hoda

Reason for hope

Published in Books & Authors (Dawn) on April 26, 2009

Original Link

Reviewed by Ayesha Hoda

Courtesy: Indiaclub.com

Storm in Chandigarh, like Nayantara Sahgal’s other works, revolves around the political change, value systems and feminist ideas in India and how all these had an impact on the upper strata of Indian society.

A well-known political journalist and an Indian author writing in English, Sahgal has won several accolades for her work. Politics is the focus of her writings as it influenced her personal life from a very young age. She is the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru’s sister Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, who was also India’s first ambassador to the United Nations. Sahgal’s father was also an Indian freedom fighter.

Hence, an in-depth understanding of politics and history comes naturally to the author and her writing reflects the fact that she is strongly attached to her roots.

Storm in Chandigarh, her third novel, was first published in 1969. As the name implies, it is based in Chandigarh, the city that serves as the capital of two Indian states, Punjab and Haryana. The novel is set after 1966, when the state of Haryana had been newly created out of the eastern part of Punjab, dividing the Hindi-speaking population from the Punjabi-speakers.

‘It still seemed grotesque that a metaphoric line had been drawn through the Punjab, that millions who had till yesterday been Punjabis had suddenly become Haryanavis, sanctifying another language and spouting another nationalism.’

This division on the basis of language led to disputes over boundaries and water and electric power sharing between the two states. ‘The centre had allowed the Punjab to be re-divided 20 years after the gruelling Partition of 1947. Why had this new mess been created?’

This is what the protagonist Vishal Dubey wants to ask. A civil servant in Delhi, Dubey is assigned the task of relocating to the joint capital of Punjab and Haryana. His role is to act as a liaison officer between Delhi and the two state governments.

Gyan Singh is the chief minister of Punjab while Harpal Singh is the chief minister of Haryana. Throughout the novel Dubey endeavours to understand these two characters and to resolve their conflict.

‘Between Gyan and Harpal, he now realised, there was more than a political battle. It was a battle of philosophies. The juster but vaguer range of possibility could seldom hold out against violent immediate claims supported by the obvious.’

This main plot is interwoven with glimpses of Dubey’s married life and tales of the other characters linked to him: Gauri, Mara and Jit, Saroj and Inder. Their stories are primarily of unhappy marriages and dysfunctional relationships.

Dubey is inflicted by the lack of communication with his wife and then by her sudden death. Gauri has a comfortable arranged marriage which lacks excitement. Jit wants to discover the source of unhappiness in Mara’s life, while Saroj is haunted by her husband’s rigid thought patterns, his insecurities and unpredictability. Through the protagonist Sahgal questions the stereotypical roles eastern husbands and wives are expected to play. Dubey also expresses concern over inflexible beliefs in Indian society regarding morality, the caste system and gender equality:

‘What people called morality touched their oldest and most cherished prejudices.’

And he attempts to define higher morality: ‘It’s a search for value, and an attempt to choose the better value, the real value, in any situation, and not just do what’s done or what is expected. ’

Despite the account of the political rift and the turmoil all the characters are entangled in, the narrative generally gives a feeling of hope. Simply written, it leads readers to the conclusion that things can change for the better, for a country as well as for an individual.

Storm in Chandigrah

By Nayantara Sahgal

Penguin Books, India

ISBN 0-14-310276-2 222pp.

Indian Rs250

International Trade Woes

Published in Books&Authors (Daily Dawn) on October 5, 2008

Original Link

Reviewed by Ayesha Hoda
‘It must be ensured that the WTO system subserves development and does not subvert it. Only then would this organisation have credibility in the eyes of the developing world,’ commented Shri M. Maran, a former commerce and industry minister of India.

This statement reflects the gains developing countries like India expect from the World Trade Organisation (WTO). India is a founding member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and its successor, the WTO, which came into existence in 1995 after the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations.

India’s participation at WTO is geared towards more stability and predictability in international trade, which will ultimately lead to more trade and prosperity for the country and for other member nations of the WTO.

It is interesting to note that The WTO Deadlocked has been published at a time crucial for the world trade deal. The Doha Development Round of the WTO has yet again ended in deadlock as a result of the conflict between India and the United States. The collapse in negotiations came as a shock for many as representatives of WTO’s member states were satisfied with the progress of the mini-ministerial this year and expected an agreement after seven years of deadlock.

Observers will thus be curious to know more about India’s stance at the WTO throughout the trade organisation’s history and how the country will negotiate in the future. Will it continue to romance both the bilateral and the multilateral approaches? Will it continue to play the developing country leadership role in coming years?

This volume, co-authored by Debahis Chakraborty and Amir Ullah Khan, tries to find answers to these and other such questions regarding India and its role at the WTO. Chakraborty is an assistant professor at the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade in New Delhi and Khan is the director of the India Development Foundation in Gurgaon.

While reading the history of the subcontinent, one is bound to notice that India has always been a pioneer of trade across borders, as is also pointed out by the writers: ‘The rich heritage of Indian trade with the Roman civilisation, East and West Asian, and Red Sea countries, and its presence on the silk and spice route map…’

However, after 1947, India became an epicenter of trade barriers in order to protect its infant industries. There was complete absence of export promotion in its development strategy before the early 1990s. The country began trade liberalisation in 1991, four years before the WTO was formed. At that point, growing economies had started to realise that the restrictions placed on trade had become dysfunctional. The preface of the book tries to explain India’s complex position and approach: ‘As a founder member of the multilateral trading system, it has been a steadfast supporter of multilateralism even when it was at its protectionist best.’

India’s participation at the WTO underwent massive change when it realised that the presence of tariff peaks and tariff escalation hampered its export interests to a major extent and that silence at WTO meetings was not going to help.


It is interesting to note that The WTO Deadlocked has been published at a time crucial for the world trade deal. The Doha Development Round of the WTO has yet again ended in a deadlock as a result of the conflict between India and the United States. The collapse in negotiations came as a shock for many as representatives of WTO’s member states were satisfied with the progress of the mini-ministerial this year and expected an agreement after seven years of deadlock.


With changes in its trade composition and the increasing need to be a significant part of the global economy, India has emerged as a major player in the negotiating dynamics of the WTO (specifically since the Seattle Ministerial).

The book provides a detailed overview of India’s negotiating strategies such as those concerning agriculture and non-agricultural market access. An analysis of the potential as well as the violation of various agreements, on the basis of WTO case laws, has also been presented.

The volume is both a factual account of what happened at the WTO negotiations and a study of India’s position as a result of changes in its economy, export basket etc. Provisions that should be considered for future reforms/talks have also been included.

The world is changing rapidly and so is the structure of international trade. The trading world is buzzing with a large number of relatively new terms such as preferential trade agreements, trade-related intellectual property rights, globalisation and contingency measures. Some of these and other issues are also included in this discussion as they form an integral part of world trade today. Readers get to know about India’s outlook when it comes to regionalism, intellectual property, anti-dumping, trade in services and so on, and are asked to consider what is next in line.

This book is not for beginners, that is, it supposes some level of understanding regarding the international trade scenario. It will assist those who are part of trade or industry and those interested in politics, economics or sociology. The language is simple though trade-related jargon has been used. Information has been gathered from a large number of sources, which may be referred to through the detailed bibliographical references and notes provided.

With its focus on India, the book promotes an understanding of what WTO has been able to achieve so far, what it stands for, and the positive and negative impact on developing countries of a global trade agreement.


The WTO Deadlocked
By Debashis Chakraborty & Amir Ullah Khan
Sage Publications, New Delhi
ISBN 0-7619-3606-0
327pp Indian Rs650