‘NAPA is the only institute in Pakistan which treats music and theatrical arts as knowledge domains’

Published in Slogan (September 2010)

Rahat Kazmi shares interesting anecdotes from his life as an actor, director and teacher, in conversation with Ayesha Hoda.

 

Rahat Kazmi at his home in Karachi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There’s a certain excitement that comes from a one-on-one conversation with any actor, especially one who stands out in his field. There is also a strange sense of familiarity; a feeling that you have known this person through the various compelling characters that he has portrayed on screen. You feel nostalgic when you meet him even if it is for the first time.
One of the best and most popular actors of Pakistani television, Rahat Kazmi at first seems not entirely different from his enigmatic screen persona. He, however, instantly makes you feel at ease and begins the conversation effortlessly, even while saying, “I don’t have much to say”.
The way he answers my questions reminds me how many times he must have given interviews. Yet he seems to enjoy the experience or it may just be that he likes to speak, being a gifted speaker and debater since his school days.
Rahat was considered a maverick in his family. His father had a successful income tax law practice and was a prominent Shia leader. But Rahat had different interests – Marxism, poetry, drama, music, etc. And he was an all-rounder.
When he entered college in 1961, he was pushed on to the stage by one Mr Nasrullah Malik, whom he describes as “a delightful eccentric” and the one who taught him “how not to believe in things”. With Mr Malik’s support, Rahat graduated from college not only with a distinction in academics but also as the best actor and debater.
On his father’s insistence, he pursued a law degree at the Punjab University law college and, as usual, did well. He fondly mentions his friends there, including Aitzaz Ahsan and late Asif Sajjad Jan.
Later, he went to Government College, Lahore and continued educating himself in various disciplines, including Political Science, English Literature and International Relations. He laughingly admits that he never wanted to leave college.
Rahat also appeared for the Civil Service exams. He went to the Information Services Academy and served in the Ministry of Information for more than three years. Then he resigned.
“In those days nobody thought of resigning from Civil Service,” he recalls. “I was one of the few. The job gave no scope for creativity or any sense of achievement. The only good thing about the experience was that as a bureaucrat I got a chance to spend one and a half months in East Pakistan. I travelled across the country and fell in love with it. Unfortunately, only a year later it became Bangladesh.”
It was a difficult decision leaving the job as Rahat had to return all the money invested in his training. However, they eventually agreed and allowed him to leave.
Simultaneously with his tenure as a bureaucrat, Rahat also had the chance to act in his first major drama serial, “Qurbatain Aur Faaslay”. Some of his college friends were working in television and remembered him from college plays. So they approached him for a role in the play which had been adapted from a novel by Ivan Turgenev called “Fathers and Sons”. Rahat thinks that for an actor the first play or drama is always the dearest to his heart as it is the first time he is doing it. In his first serial, Rahat tried to copy Che Guevara, the famous Argentinean revolutionary.
Those were the days when there were not many recording facilities. The drama had to be recorded in big chunks and went on air the same week. Two episodes had already been aired and the team had still not found the lead girl. Rahat then saw Saira one day, who used to read the English news. He inquired whether she would be suitable for the part. Eventually, Aslam Azhar (Chairman, Pakistan Television), who knew Saira Kazmi’s father, persuaded him to let her take the role.
That is how Rahat met Saira: “The beginning of our romance was with an argument,” he relates. “We were going to the TV station. Somebody had commented that the camera work was very conventional and she agreed. I said it suited the material; it was neither conventional nor unconventional. So we started arguing and it has continued till date. For the last thirty years, we have had fights on many technical issues.”
The drama serial was a blockbuster and quite typically, people and newspapers started saying they should get married. At first the couple was cynical and ignored it as idle gossip. But eventually they did get married.
“It was a Shia-Sunni marriage, so there was a lot of hue and cry over it. But we had really nice friends like Badar Khalil who helped us get together.”
Rahat’s second serial “Parchaiyan” was recorded in Karachi and was such a huge success that when the actor visited India in 1979, he found film institutes there using it as class material to teach students how to direct and produce plays.
Despite these successes, Rahat realised that there was no money in the business and decided to go for the big screen. In three years, he did 11 films but with the collapse of the film industry, he and other actors like Nadeem Baig and Shabnam decided to move from Lahore to Karachi.
So life had to start again. Saira was employed in television. She moved towards direction and won many awards for her work. Rahat also did a lot of work for television but with the low incomes offered in those days, he pursued a teaching career as well. Rahat’s academic qualifications and exemplary linguistic skills enabled him to teach A level and university students, in subjects ranging from literature to politics to international relations. He also worked as the Regional Director for Beaconhouse School System for seven years. Currently, he teaches English Literature at l ‘ecole in Karachi.
When the National Academy of Performing Arts (NAPA) was established in 2005, Rahat joined it as head of the Theatre Arts department. He also heads the NAPA Repertory Theatre Company, founded about three years back. This company has been producing six theatre plays each year and is currently working on its fifteenth production – Khel Jaari Hai – a comedy play directed by Rahat.
Speaking on the recent increase in such theatrical productions, Rahat says, “We have certainly rejuvenated theatre in Pakistan. The Arts Council is now booked for two years with performances by various theatre groups. But we have an advantage over others as we are funded by the government and can experiment more plus we have a bunch of well-trained actors – NAPA graduates.
“One institution cannot do everything but NAPA is the only institute in Pakistan which treats music and theatrical arts as knowledge domains; as disciplines to be taught and learnt. Previously there was no such place. The National College of Arts has just introduced a degree programme in theatre.”
When asked if people here will actually consider going for an entire degree in theatre arts, given the low income potential in Pakistan, Rahat is of the view that such passionate people are always there and they will go for it. Those who only want to make money will do morning or cooking shows. He says theatre has a limited audience the world over as it requires a very high level of education for people to appreciate various art forms. That is why here one sees the same faces everywhere, whether it is an art exhibition, a theatre play or a film screening.
Rahat, being a voracious reader, is also disappointed by the fading reading culture the world over. He is sad that students and even teachers rely on notes written twenty years ago, reveals distaste for tuition centres and says it is unfortunate that good education has become so expensive in Pakistan. “Education and arts should always be subsidised,” he says.
Moving on to a discussion on TV actors, Rahat says that they have become millionaires with big cars and big houses, which is a good thing. “Why can’t artists make more money,” he asks.
I ask him why he is no longer a part of the television industry to which he responds, “I am too old to work now. And I think it has all become too commercial, which is really not my cup of tea. It is all about selling shows and how much percentage who will get. Even news is often sponsored.”
When I ask him if he thinks Pakistani serials are inspired by Indian soaps, he defends the industry, “Everyone borrows from everyone else. See, there are only a few formats in the world: (i) cooking shows (ii) general shows (iii) talk shows (iv) soaps and (v) news. What else can you do on television?
“Of course dramas in the 70s were better as they were funded by the state. You will do better work and experiment more when there is no commercial restraint, like BBC is still the best channel. Now on private channels, there are so many commercial breaks with anchors rudely interrupting guests to go for a break. But channels need to decide on their tone: serious or not serious? One second we hear the heart-wrenching news of flood victims and the next second a silly jingle tries to sell biscuits to us. If things are commercialised to such an extent, then you lose credibility and the ability to create quality content.”
Rahat also feels that adapting novels for television serials is very challenging but should be done more often to maintain standards: “Novelists take years to complete their books so their ideas have matured while a usual TV script may only take three months or even less. If you look back, you will see that some of the best work on Pakistani television has been an adaptation of great novels.”
Hope the bigwigs of Pakistani television industry are listening. One can only wonder if the younger crop of TV artists will follow in Rahat’s footsteps and become household names like him.

‘I have always been a dreamer’ – Sidra Iqbal

Published in Slogan (Jan 2009)

Crossroads with Sidra Iqbal

She loved to communicate even before she learned to speak. It was quite inevitable that she would excel at public speaking one day.

Sidra Iqbal has used her natural ability wisely and made use of every good opportunity that life has offered. As a public speaker, youth trainer, brand consultant, PR practitioner and media anchorperson, she is an inspiring example for the young generation.

Exuding tons of confidence and a charismatic spark, with a dream of becoming someone whose opinion mattered, Sidra Iqbal instinctively took to debating and public speaking while she was still in school. She rose to prominence in college (DHA, Karachi) when she became the youngest finalist of the Prime Minister’s Shield – a competition put together by the Higher Education Commission in which over 132 universities participate from across the country.

Luckily, DHA College was also invited to participate in the English Speaking Union’s competition that year (1999). Sidra was first selected from Karachi and then from Pakistan to represent the country abroad. She became the first Pakistani to win the prestigious English Speaking Union’s International Public Speaking Championship in London. Emerging as a winner from amongst 58 participants from 28 countries, she was honoured with a visit to the Royal family at the Buckingham Palace and awarded the winner’s certificate by HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh.

Sidra participated in many other such competitions later and had the privilege of visiting several countries for this purpose, such as Japan, Australia, United States and Cyprus. Youth forums, conventions and training programmes happened concurrently with the progress she made in her academic life – completing her BBA and MBA from the College of Business Management, Karachi.

Sidra also got a training opportunity at the British Council, Karachi in 2000. She designed and executed the summer public speaking workshops called Speech Craft. In 2003, she was asked to use the same concept and launch TCS Hyde Park Juniors. This was a popular training programme and championship series in which over 200 young participants enrolled to receive training in public
speaking and personal grooming.

After graduation, Sidra’s first job was with City School Network as the marketing head. She then took a brief sabbatical and wrote for a journal published by Boston University. For one of her pieces on advertising, she interviewed Taher A. Khan, Founder and Chairman of Interflow Group. He was launching TV1 at that time and asked Sidra to join.

“I started off as a marketing person there but even before the channel was launched, I also became the producer of a show and finally, when the personality of the show had to be selected, I ended up hosting it,” says Sidra.

After that, Sidra also worked as the Content Head at ARY. In summer 2006, she was awarded a full scholarship to attend the International Relations Summer Programme at the Oxford University, UK.

“Interest in International Relations developed at a young age,” says Sidra. “For example, when my friends were discussing which college they wanted to go to or when I participated in international competitions. In 1999 and 2000, everyone was talking about the Millennium Development Goals; about what was happening in the country and how we can have a more equal place in the world.

“Moreover, as a debater and public speaker you need and want to generally know about what is happening around in the world; hence the course in IR.”

On her return, she pursued anchoring, hosting shows like Corporate Coffee on PTV News. This show is still running.

“When we designed the programme, we thought we would reach out to the corporate world only but a major chunk of our viewership comes from management students all over the country.”

Some of the other notable shows she has been a part of include Baaton Baaton Mein (ARY Digital), KIVA Circle of Wisdom (TV1) and Red Talk with Sidra Iqbal (Radio1 FM 91).

While hosting and producing shows, Sidra was once again approached by Taher A. Khan; this time to work at Ogilvy & Mather, Pakistan. From November 2007 to October 2008, she served there as Vice President, Public Relations. This is when Sidra also got a chance to train and work at the Ogilvy Hong Kong and Singapore offices.

Now Sidra works freelance as a consultant and a media anchorperson. She has recently returned from an official visit to the US. She had been invited for the 16-part drama series, ‘Khuda Zameen Sey Gaya Nahin.’

“We were invited by the Ambassador of Pakistan to the US, Mr. Hussain Haqqani. He put together a media show at the Embassy of Pakistan inviting the most prestigious media representatives from CNN, BBC, PBS and others.

“This media show was related to the launch of ‘Khuda Zameen Sey Gaya Nahin,’ in the US on PTV Global with subtitles. The story is based on operation Rah-e-Nijaat and how the people of Pakistan are fighting against extremism.

“We received an incredible response in Washington. People there were moved by the stories, the music and the characters.”

Sidra has started hosting a new show called ‘Crossroads with Sidra Iqbal’, on PTV News. It covers socio-political subjects. In the show, Sidra addresses the civil society about anything major that is happening. She aims to bring viewers at a juncture where they have to determine the way forward.

Speaking in general about her achievements so far, Sidra says, “I have always been a dreamer. Television, communication in general and corporate communications are subjects of passion for me. My philosophy in life is to keep growing and keep learning.

“I wasn’t always sure about what I wanted to do and how I wanted to do it. But God has always been kind and given me so many opportunities. I try my best to take advantage of them. It doesn’t matter whether the opportunity is small or big.

“The work I do has to be exclusive. I give it my heart and soul because my name is attached. I firmly believe that whatever I have achieved is all because of my mother’s appreciation. Without her support, I wouldn’t have been even one percent of what I am today.”

– By Ayesha Hoda

‘TCF’s children are its brand ambassadors!’ – Mushtaq K. Chhapra, Founding Member, The Citizens Foundation

Published in Slogan (January 2010)

Mushtaq K. Chhapra, in conversation with Ayesha Hoda, reveals how TCF has become a household name and continues to provide affordable yet quality education to the underprivileged.

What factors led to the establishment of The Citizens Foundation (TCF)?

Back in 1995, the socio-economic and security situation in Pakistan was very bleak. We – the six founding directors of TCF – kept discussing what we could do to make a difference in this country.

We identified lack of education as the root cause of many issues. Prior to 1973, the government schools were quite successful in imparting quality education. But after nationalization, things changed. So when we started off, we said ‘let’s think big.’ We wanted to make a difference for thousands of families and planned to build 1000 schools, with an equal number of males and females.

TCF has a co-education system and schools are based in the most impoverished areas – urban slums and villages.

Courtesy: TCF's Official Website

How was the response back then? What challenges did you face?

The first five schools were set up in 1996 and were financed by the board of directors. We did not want to go to the community and take money as first we needed to test the effectiveness of this system.

People were willing to send their girls if we recruited female faculty members. So that is what we did and it has turned out very well. We provide respectable jobs to women, including former TCF students.

The fee structure we set is also very flexible. We only asked for a notional fee of Rs 175. Even this was a lot for families with seven to eight kids and a monthly income of Rs.2000 to 3000. So we asked them what they could afford and some paid as little as Rs.10 per child. It is not free because this way they maintain a sense of self-respect and value the education their children are receiving. We also offer scholarships if parents are willing to send their girls along with the boys to school.

As far as challenges are concerned, they are always there. Two most important ones are having adequate financial and human resources. In 2010, we will be spending Rs 1.2 billion on building new schools and running existing ones.

Fortunately, Pakistanis are very generous – 96 percent of donations are made by Pakistanis.

We are also lucky to have bright and intelligent people working for the TCF management and are sure they will help achieve the Foundation’s goals.

How many TCF schools and students are there currently?

We have 600 schools educating 82,000 children and employing more than 4,200 faculty members. The biggest plus point is that we now have 48% girls and 52% boys, quite close to our original target.

TCF also has nine chapters worldwide – in the USA, UK, Canada, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Singapore.

We have identified three other areas that we have started working on. These include adult literacy, vocational training and provision of clean water.

People trust TCF’s name and the work it is doing. In what ways has the Foundation managed to create such an important place for itself among the local NGOs?

We have always had good intentions. We did not want any projection for any family or person or group. This foundation belongs to the citizens. We are just custodians and narrate what TCF is all about.

Of course, we needed to promote it so that it would become a household name. To achieve this, we have maintained very high standards. When we meet people, we ask them to visit our website and the schools. Everyone who has visited TCF has gone back satisfied. Our work is genuine and transparent – every rupee spent is accounted for. That is why people trust us. Visitors also talk to students and teachers. TCF’s children are its brand ambassadors!

Would you like to talk about any other marketing or promotional activities?

We have a dynamic marketing department. We advertise by putting up hoardings and billboards, and airing TV commercials. We have also filmed another documentary on TCF.

Sometimes articles are published in newspapers and journals. We also organise or take part in events such as musical evenings, plays, walks and book launches. Every two months we have a coffee evening, where the supporters of TCF gather to discuss and chip in a little bit. There is a complete plan of action developed before the beginning of each year.

In your opinion, what are some of the major achievements of the Foundation?

Our main achievement is of course that we are imparting high quality education to underprivileged children of the country. Every year there is an improvement in grades. This year, 49% of our students secured A and A+ in Matriculation.

Do you think enough is being done for education in the country by companies through their CSR activities?

Fortunately, in the last 15 years, there has been a change in mindsets in the corporate sector, which has really helped the NGO sector and social causes. Both national and multinational companies have CSR budgets, which are timely and helpful.

How do you feel about the media’s role in promoting NGOs? Does it encourage volunteerism?

Media – especially electronic media – is playing an important role in promoting social causes although much more needs to be done.

Volunteerism also depends on the kind of volunteer programmes that NGOs offer. For example, we have a formal summer programme each year, in which children can participate during their vacations. Then there is also a Rahbar (mentoring) programme. This is eight weeks long and conducted three times a year. Every Saturday, for two and a half hours, mentors interact, advise and play with TCF kids.

An Interview with Stefano Pelle on CSR

Published in SouthAsia (August 2007)

Stefano Pelle, author of ‘Understanding Emerging Markets, Building Business BRIC by Brick’, Chief Operating Officer of Perfetti Van Melle Group and recipient of Knight Commander Award from the Italian President, talks to Ayesha Hoda

Tell our readers a little about your work experience.

I have been working for a long time for Perfetti Van Melle, which is an Italian multinational company operating worldwide in the sugar confectionery industry. Its products are distributed in around 130 countries. Presently, I am the Vice President and Chief Operating Officer and am looking after Russia and the CIS countries, South Asia, including Afghanistan and Burma and some parts of Africa.

Prior to this, I have worked in several other companies including Johnson & Johnson and Danone and thus have gained extensive experience in FMCG and the services sector.

Please shed some light on your initiative called COIN and who it will benefit.

Since I strongly believe in Corporate Social Responsibility, I created a trust – Children Of India Now (COIN), before I left India, to help people in need there.

COIN was established in the beginning of 2007 and registered a few months after; it is thus a nascent and a very recent initiative.

The activities schedule includes support for Children Education (which has been happening regularly), support for children’s health problems, support for mothers of children who cannot take care of themselves as well as some other activities (e.g. food for orphanages, etc).

COIN would like to give a chance for a better life to children, be they orphaned or abandoned, or children who need help, whose parents cannot provide them with even basic needs such as healthcare and education. It is associated with some institutes taking care of children and hopefully it will grow in the years to come and help these children build their future and their lives.

Any particular reasons for interest in this area?

I have been involved in CSR activities, particularly in activities towards children, even before creating this trust. We started CSR activities in our company (Perfetti Van Melle) a few years ago in India. We have been involved in initiatives such as free medical assistance to remote villages, training of people without jobs in our factories, training of women without jobs, provision of work tools and help to orphanages and several other activities with some local NGOs. Our Bangladeshi company has recently started some activities on similar lines.

Since I have lived and worked in India for a number of years, I have been able to personally see and realise how many millions of children will never have the chance of a decent standard of living if somebody does not help them or their families. After writing my book, Understanding Emerging Markets – Building Business Bric by Brick, the royalties of which go entirely to the COIN trust, I thought that I could give a further chance to my readers, to contribute to this cause.

What motivated you to write the book?

The reason I wrote the book was mainly to put down in black and white and thus share, my experience of working in emerging markets. I have lived for over eight years in India and now I am based in Dubai. I directly take care of two of the BRIC; thus I have acquired quite a bit of knowledge in doing business in these.

My book is a blend of practical hints for those who want to start working in these countries (or who are already working there) and business theories coming from my educational background in several institutes in Europe and Asia.

I happen to also teach in some institutes in Italy and India when my schedule allows, giving lectures on emerging markets, developing countries, the evolution of BRIC countries and so on. So academics and field experience really added to my perspectives on business-related subjects as well as with some chapters of general interest (e.g. Geopolitics) or others on sustainable development, CSR, etc., issues which are generating a great amount of interest these days. You could say that it is not only a business book but will be informative and interesting even for a general audience.

How important is Corporate Social Responsibility in South Asia?

I think CSR is very important since the number of people who live below the poverty line is still very high. On the other hand, the economies in most of the South Asian countries are doing very well – India is expected to have a very dominating economy by 2050.

Even now, there are many successful companies and individuals there. So, a small contribution from those who can afford it can make a difference in the life of the less privileged ones. Companies have started understanding this, and some of them are moving their first steps; some others have been involved in CSR activities for a long time: Tata is one outstanding example of a large Indian conglomerate doing an excellent job in this field.

Do you think NGOs are playing a significant role in the development of the (South Asian) region? How reliable are they?

There are so many NGOs and it is difficult to generalise. Some of them are certainly doing a very good job. Our company in India has been associated with a few of these, and the experience has been very positive. On the other hand, sometimes too much of granted help from NGOs at a country level may turn to be not fully positive. This is the case when the help does not aim to enable people to help themselves, but the contributions are given on a regular basis without a clear agenda.

Sometimes these funds are not used to create the infrastructure or the tools necessary to enhance the quality of life of those in need. They instead become the source of income of the country: in this case the governments use the same for their current needs instead of employing the same to become self-sufficient.

How much support are you getting for COIN?

Not much to tell the truth. It is also a fact that, apart from the mention in my book about donations, there has been no form of advertising for COIN: thus many people may not even know of its existence as yet.

Furthermore, it is not always easy to know which trust/association is actually doing something good: people are hesitant to donate money if they are not reassured about the genuine intentions of the organisations that collect funds.

“…marketing is not done in a vacuum” – Qashif Effendi, Chief Executive Officer, 180°

Published in Slogan

To be a successful marketer, you need to be observant, have faith and be a wacko. That is what has made Qashif Effendi’s marketing career highly impressive.

Mr. Effendi never really read a book on marketing while pursuing his MBA degree at IBA Karachi. He chose marketing because he could never balance a balance sheet so majoring in finance was out of the question.

What made him discover his passion for marketing was not his academic record – gold medallist with 3.8 GPA – but a chance reading of the book ‘Marketing Warfare’ by Al Ries and Jack Trout.

Realising his love for the subject, Qashif embarked on a fun filled but challenging marketing career with Caltex. After a year, he moved to Philips and spent 4 years there. The next five years were spent at Unilever, where he worked on Dalda for one year and then 4 years on Supreme.

With his expertise in marketing tea, he then moved to Tetley Pakistan and then Tetley Middle East.

“I thoroughly enjoyed working for this product category,” he reminisces. “Tea is in the blood of our nation. There is no specific occasion for this beverage. For some people it is in fact a full meal. Even in the Middle East, per capita consumption of tea is very high. So working for this product offered tremendous opportunities to position brands according to different tea drinking habits, climate etc.”

On his return to Pakistan, Qashif found another challenging opportunity and worked at KESC for six months, where he handled a much bigger target market – influencing 16 million people directly and 160 million indirectly.

Qashif then established his own marketing consultancy firm called 180° with the simple realisation that several companies were looking for a 180° turnaround of their brands, on a sustainable basis.

“I am often asked why I did not name the company 360°,” says Qashif. “So I clarify that 360° refers to tools such as PR, sponsorships, ATL activities etc. which will help achieve a 180° result. Companies and brands that are in trouble need a 180° change and that is what we seek to achieve.

“Brand managers stay in a company for a few years and develop campaigns that will deliver results for only those few years. We have a long-term approach and believe in building brands rather than just developing a few popular campaigns that have a short life.”

In doing so, Qashif is joined by Yasmin Hyder, his partner at 180 Degrees, and a team of marketing professionals who are ‘as excited about change.’

Qashif opines that Pakistanis are risk-averse and do not want to come out of their comfort zones; they resist change. But things are changing for the better and clients are now more open to advice.

“If a company approaches us, we visit their office, talk to people there and do a full diagnosis. Then we prescribe solutions and not only that, we are also there for execution and guarantee success, unlike other consultants,” explains Qashif.

He says that another goal is to train and guide the marketing team at the company so that they do not completely depend on outside help.

In addition to his work at 180 Degrees, Qashif has also been teaching marketing courses since the past 14 years at leading business schools in Pakistan including Szabist, IBA, CBM, Greenwich and Karachi University. Currently, he is the Vice President at Szabist, working towards making it a global institute.

He states that in this information age the role of teachers is changing. Students have access to all kinds of information and rather than imparting knowledge, teachers have to focus on inspiring students and developing their interest in the subject.

For this purpose, Qashif refers to the latest text available of marketing books and keeps himself updated on changing trends in the field,

“One of the major shifts we are witnessing is in retailing. It used to be really fragmented here but now you see a change in urban markets, with the Metros and the Makros coming. It is becoming more concentrated and we will have more specialised and exclusive promotions.

“Then there is social media through which power has shifted to the consumers. You just have to write a line on facebook about the brand and word spreads. Smart companies are using social media to gain support.

“There are also many changes coming up in technology. Marketers need to keep abreast of what new gadgets have been introduced and other developments. Today marketing has become an extremely dynamic and demanding field. But the most important thing that we need to remember is that marketing is not done in a vacuum. One has to be aware of the environment. Marketing campaigns that are developed keeping in mind the socio-political climate are more successful in making an impact.”

– By Ayesha Hoda